development – Newbie Queries on the “Basis” of Crypto-Currencies


I am a Newbie in terms of Crypto-Currencies and hence, I will base my Queries on a “Newbie” article [[ available here, but may be Pay-walled ]] from The Washington Post. There are various other similar, articles but this one covers most of my Queries. I am looking for answers or layman references to figure out more.

Business Practice Strategy :
(1) The article start off with an Image of Customers, which is well and fine, but who are the “sellers” ? How did the initial sellers (or original sellers) get hold of the Crypto-Currencies in the first Place ?
[[ My current thinking is like this : Similar to a stock sale in IPO, some groups or networks of computers had “mined” some Coins according to some algorithm; then the owners of these networks decided to put a “Dollar Value” on these “Shares” or Coins and started selling and expanding the networks ]]

Regulation :
(2) The article talks about (A) “cutting governments and banks out of the financial loop”, yet it also says (B) “Chinese crackdown on cryptocurrencies then briefly took another one-third off the price” & (C) “Prospect of competition from … has prodded central banks around the world to design digital versions of their currencies.” & (D) “The Bahamas has … a central bank digital currency, while countries like China, Japan and Sweden are conducting experiments with their own official digital money.”
Here, (A) seems contradictory to (B), (C) & (D) ; Are Banks really out of the Crypto-Currencies financial loop ? Are Governments really out of the Crypto-Currencies financial loop ?
[[ My current thinking is like this : Banks may take part in established Crypto-Currencies but will be equal to other customers, having no Special Powers. Governments can and will monitor and control access to the internet to monitor and control established Crypto-Currencies; It will not be “anonymous” in general. With Banks & Governments start their own Crypto-Currencies, the control and monitoring will be even more stringent, with no “anonymity” at all ]]

Technical :
(3) The article says “Part of the allure seems to be that, like gold, the supply of most cryptocurrencies is tightly controlled (by the computer programs that manage them). For instance, about 18.5 million bitcoin have been created so far, and there will eventually be a maximum of 21 million bitcoin. This is a cap set by the computer program that manages the supply of the currency.”
(A) Here, gold is Physically limited with limited Supply and is not a virtual entity. Bits are virtual entities and are not limited. Who is the “human agent” or “group of humans” deciding to control the supply via “Computer Programs” or “Algorithms” ?
(B) In Shares IPO, there is a maximum number of shares, decided by the company which is selling. Shares may be merged and split.
Who decided that there will be a maximum in Coins ? What if that decision is nullified and the maximum is reduced ? The holders of the nullified Coins will lose, while the other holders will see an increase in value ! What if the maximum is increased ? The Existing Coins will lose value !
(C) Shares are limited and controlled by the company. In Coins, there are numerous cases of “forks” which seem like Duplication of Coins in each “fork”, but each “fork” retains the original value and the original maximum number initially, which seems like “Double free money” with almost no effort !
(D) In case of BitCoin, “Satoshi Nakamoto” wrote that “Computer Program” originally, but who owns it and maintains it Daily ? What about other Crypto-Currencies ?

I am looking for answers or layman references to figure out more.

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