blockchain – How do nodes contribute to safety when the facility comes from mining and what’s the chain of transaction validation?

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Blockchain safety comes from the decentralisation of hashing energy by miners. They append transactions to a block, carry out PoW and add them to the blockchain when that validate blocks. How do nodes contribute to this? Does not all of the validation energy come from the longest chain, which is determined by miners. And the way do miners detect an invalid block that has been added to the blockchain?

When transactions are broadcasted, I although that public key cryptography is used to confirm the transaction. At what stage does this occur? Do nodes do that, and if that’s the case, is it each single node? When a block is added, do miners carry out steps on the block to ensure they’re legit. And what does an illegitimate transaction appear like?

Thanks



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